Get An Introduction to Word Grammar PDF

By Richard Hudson

ISBN-10: 0521721644

ISBN-13: 9780521721646

ISBN-10: 0521896908

ISBN-13: 9780521896900

Observe grammar is a conception of language constitution and is predicated at the assumption that language, and certainly the total of information, is a community, and that almost all of data is realized. It combines the mental insights of cognitive linguistics with the rigour of extra formal theories. This textbook spans a extensive diversity of themes from prototypes, activation and default inheritance to the main points of syntactic, morphological and semantic constitution. It introduces hassle-free principles from cognitive technological know-how and makes use of them to give an explanation for the constitution of language together with a survey of English grammar.

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Taking the example of ‘bird’, all its properties generalize to all the concepts below it in the taxonomy:€if we know that birds have wings and feathers, we can apply this knowledge to robins, sparrows and so on. This may not strike you as much of a benefit since we already know that robins and sparrows have wings and feathers; and indeed it may well be that we knew these things about robins and sparrows before we created the generalization about birds. ) But generalization allows us to go beyond what we already know in two ways:€in dealing with less familiar cases, and in dealing with unobservables.

This rather simple idea leads inevitably to the theory that conceptual properties are nothing but links to other concepts. To see how this works, take the ‘bird’ example. In this theory, there are concepts for ‘flying’, ‘feather’, ‘wing’ and so on as well as for ‘bird’, and the properties of ‘bird’ consist of links to these other concepts.

Liver and bacon isA meat dish. Sausage and mash isA meat dish. Fish dish isA main course. Meat dish isA main course. Starter isA dish. Main course isA dish. Worse still, here’s a top-down version in continuous prose: A dish is either a starter, which may be soup, which may be either pea soup or chicken soup; or a main course, which may be either a fish dish, which may be baked cod and parsley sauce or grilled plaice, or a meat dish, which may be liver and bacon or sausage and mash. A bottom-up approach isn’t much more readable: Pea soup and chicken soup are soup, which is a starter; and baked cod and parsley sauce and grilled plaice are fish dishes; and liver and bacon and sausage and mash are meat dishes; and fish dishes and meat dishes are main courses; and starters and main courses are dishes.

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An Introduction to Word Grammar by Richard Hudson

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