By Dirk Stroobandt
The roots of this booklet, and of the hot examine box that it defines, lie within the scaling of VLSI expertise. With gigahertz process clocks and ever accelerating layout and technique ideas, interconnects became the restricting issue for either functionality and density. This expanding impression of interconnects at the process implementation area necessitates new instruments and analytic suggestions to help the procedure clothier. With admire to modeling and research, the reaction to interconnect dom inance is evolutionary. Atomistic- and grain-level versions of interconnect constitution, and function types at multi-gigahertz working frequencies, jointly advisor the choice of more suitable fabrics and method applied sciences (e. g. , damascene copper wires, low-permittivity dielectrics). formerly in major results (e. g. , mutual inductance) are additional into functionality mod els, as older approximations (e. g. , lumped-capacitance gate load types) are discarded. even though, on the system-level and chip making plans point, the mandatory reaction to interconnect dominance is innovative. Convergent layout flows don't require in basic terms dispensed RLC line types, repeater information, unifi cations with extraction and research, and so forth. particularly, concerns similar to wiring layer task, and early prediction of the source and function envelope for the process interconnect (in specific, in response to statistical versions of the process interconnect structure), additionally develop into severe. certainly, system-level interconnect prediction has emerged because the enabler of superior interconnect modeling, less costly method architectures, and extra effective layout technology.
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Additional info for A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design
The objective of VLSI CAD tools is to minimize the time needed for every iteration of placement, routing, and the entire design trajectory and to find a result as optimal as possible. The aid of automatic CAD tools is more and more used to speed up the design process. Especially the placement and routing phases are generally highly automated. The complexity of a design with millions of components requires CAD tools that are not only fast enough, but that also perform very well. Yet, the CAD tools often lack enough flexibility or 'insight' to tackle the problem efficiently.
On line estimation occurs when we want to estimate the wire length during floorplanning or placement. This kind of estimates can be used to stop the placement process early, as soon as it becomes obvious that it is leading to a bad solution [SP86, PP89a]. Early estimates of wire length can also be used to shorten the feedback loops in timing- and wire length-driven placement by doing some steps earlier in the design flow, based on the estimates. The accuracy of on-line wire length estimation should be between those for a priori and a posteriori regimes, reflecting the available information (more information than a priori, less than a posteriori).
Wire length estimations of entire nets are therefore denoted as length estimates for routing-related applications. 3NMOS denotes the n-channel MOS ("Metal Oxide Semiconductor'). 4CMOS: 'Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor' . Overview 11 • power dissipation: the power dissipation depends (to a large extent) on the output capacitance of the gates. This capacitance gets worse for longer wire lengths (the capacitance increases proportional to the length). 35JLm CMOS technology [SBP95]), this minor effect is nullified by the much stronger relative difference in dimensions between the components and the wires.
A Priori Wire Length Estimates for Digital Design by Dirk Stroobandt