By Heath, Jeffrey
Jamsay is the largest-population language between a few twenty Dogon languages in Mali, West Africa. this is often the 1st entire grammar of any Dogon language, together with an entire tonology. The language is verb-final, with topic contract at the verb and without different case-marking. Its so much impressive function is the morphosyntactically prompted use of stem-wide tone-contour overlays on nouns, verbs, and adjectives. All stems have a lexical tone contour similar to H[igh], L[ow]-H, HL, or LHL with a minimum of one H-tone. An examination of tone overlay is tone-dropping to stem-wide all-L. this can be used for Perfective verbs (in the presence of a focalized constituent), and for a noun or adjective earlier than an adjective. it's also used to mark the pinnacle NP in a relative clause (the head NP isn't extracted, so this is often the single direct indication of head NP status). The verb in a relative clause is morphologically a participle, agreeing with the pinnacle NP in humanness and quantity, instead of with the topic. ""Intonation"" is used grammatically. for instance, NP conjunction 'X and Y' is expressed as X Y, with no conjunction, yet with ""dying-quail"" intonation on either conjuncts.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library)
Because participial agreement is with the head rather than with the subject, in non-subject relatives some way must be found to express a pronominal subject. This is accomplished by using a set of L-toned preverbal subject pronominal proclitics, corresponding functionally to the subject pronominal suffixes that occur on verbs in main clauses. ) Therefore the way to say ‘the place where I saw you’ can be schematized as (7). L”). Nonh”) on the verb. There is a 2Sg object pronominal proclitic (H-toned u@), and an L-toned preverbal subject pronominal proclitic (1Sg mi $).
A few of the most common nonfinal clause and VP types are given schematically in (25). In all cases, the clause or VP as shown may be followed by a main clause. (25) structure typical function a. 1) […bare verb stem] […bare verb stem] me$y< same-subject VP’s same-subject VP’s b. 1) […inflected verb] dey antecedent ‘if …’ (‘when …’) c. 2) […bare verb stem] jE@ me$y< […bare verb stem] ga@˘ ka^n […nominalized verb] ‘in’ […Sg participle of verb] subject-switch (often) ‘after …’ ‘before …’ temporal (varying by verbal aspect) d.
The combination ç…a occurs in Perfectives like jç$ƒ-a^˘- from jç$ƒç@- ‘be shattered’. I know of no a…ç sequences within stems or in stem-suffix combinations. Note that o is not conducive to spirantization: do$go@- ‘finish’ and Resultative do$g-a^˘- ‘be finished’ have unspirantized g, as does ko@go@jo@- ‘cough’. Likewise, I did not observe spirantization between E vowels, as in sE$gE@ ‘skeleton’. The tones of the preceding and following vowels have no effect on spirantization; thus a$ƒa@ ‘husband’ and its possessed form a@ƒa$ both have [ƒ].
A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library) by Heath, Jeffrey